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Water resource availability study

GIS for water scarcity studies

Water scarcity is already a main challenge for many countries around the world. Furthermore climate change effects are expected to impact all aspects related to water cycle and among these water availability.

The expected increase of temperature, the longer period with no rainfall and the more frequent extreme rainfall events (ACCELERATES project, 2004) are some aspects that will affect drinking water availability. Climate change has to be taken into account in hydrological models, mainly at long term.

Hydrology needs many data sources to assess water quality, determine water supply, prevent flooding, understand environmental issues and manage water resources. GIS are a significant support tool for hydrologic modeling.

Here an example of GIS application in hydrologic model process for water resource availability is shown.

The case study was developed in Simferopol, the capital of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. Situated on the Salgir River, the city covers an area of 107,4 km2 with 360,2 thousands inhabitants.


IN SIMFEROPOLGIS_water_scarcity_Simferopol.html

Drinking water is mainly provided by surface water sources, much more affected by climate change impact. Three reservoirs are filled from local water (mainly natural runoff and partly capping waters) and one reservoir is filled with water coming from Dnepr river.

Due to the increasing of mean daily temperatures, especially in summer period, water quality in reservoirs will change significantly. The increasing evaporation and longer dry periods will affect catchments areas and decrease the flows in Crimean rivers. This poses an issue also for competitive uses of water.

Study of the water resources evaluation was developed on the territory of catchment areas. SWAT model was applied to evaluate water quality and determine factors, which influence river flow parameters. GIS application were developed both using commercial software ArcSWAT, the ArcGIS-ArcView extension and graphical user input interface for SWAT, and MWSWAT, a free, open source interface to SWAT, consisting of the GIS system MapWindow.